ANOVA for unbalanced data: an overview

R. G. Shaw, T. Mitchell-Olds

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

355 Scopus citations


When the response variables have continuous distributions and the conditions are discrete, whether inherently or by design, then it is appropriate to analyze the data using analysis of variance (ANOVA). When data conform to a complete, balanced design (equal numbers of observations in each experimental treatment), it is straightforward to conduct an ANOVA. This paper provides an overview of the consequences of lack of balance and gives some guidelines to analyzing unbalanced data for models involving fixed effects. -from Authors

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1638-1645
Number of pages8
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1993


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