ANOVA and ANCOVA of pre- and post-test, ordinal data

Mark L. Davison, Anu R. Sharma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


With random assignment to treatments and standard assumptions, either a one-way ANOVA of post-test scores or a two-way, repeated measures ANOVA of pre- and post-test scores provides a legitimate test of the equal treatment effect null hypothesis for latent variable Θ. In an ANCOVA for pre- and post-test variables X and Y which are ordinal measures of η and Θ, respectively, random assignment and standard assumptions ensure the legitimacy of inferences about the equality of treatment effects on latent variable Θ. Sample estimates of adjusted Y treatment means are ordinal estimators of adjusted post-test means on latent variable Θ.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)593-600
Number of pages8
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1994


  • analysis of covariance
  • analysis of variance
  • gain scores
  • ordinal data
  • parametric statistics


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