Ankle proprioception in children with cerebral palsy

Elizabeth Boyer, Qiyin Huang, Stacy Ngwesse, Jennifer Nelson, Jinseok Oh, Jürgen Konczak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


PURPOSE: There is no established clinical standard to evaluate ankle proprioception in children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study compared ankle position sense of children with CP to age-matched children who are typically developing (TD).

METHODS: Children aged 6-17 years participated (15 CP, 58 TD). Using a custom-built device, the ankle was passively rotated to two positions for 25 trials. Using a psychophysical forced-choice paradigm, participants indicated which position was more plantarflexed. A psychometric function was fitted to the response data to determine the just noticeable difference (JND) threshold and the associated uncertainty (random error) for ankle position sense.

RESULTS: Median JND thresholds for the CP group were elevated (CP: 4.3°, TD: 3.0°). Three children with CP exceeded the 95th percentile of TD. No differences in random error were found.

CONCLUSION: This method assessed ankle proprioception relative to norm data and identified position sense impairments in children with CP. Using this method can provide data on proprioceptive status in CP, augmenting the assessment of motor impairment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)75-83
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
Issue number1
Early online dateNov 23 2023
StatePublished - Mar 26 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 - The authors. Published by IOS Press.


  • Balance
  • human
  • kinesthesia
  • position sense
  • somatosensory

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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