Anisotropic zonation in the lithosphere of Central North America: Influence of a strong cratonic lithosphere on the Mid-Continent Rift

O. Ola, A. W. Frederiksen, T. Bollmann, S. van der Lee, F. Darbyshire, E. Wolin, J. Revenaugh, C. Stein, S. Stein, M. Wysession

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Abstract

We present shear-wave splitting analyses of SKS and SKKS waves recorded at sixteen Superior Province Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) seismic stations on the north shore of Lake Superior, as well as fifteen selected Earthscope Transportable Array instruments south of the lake. These instruments bracket the Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) and sample the Superior, Penokean, Yavapai and Mazatzal tectonic provinces. The data set can be explained by a single layer of anisotropic fabric, which we interpret to be dominated by a lithospheric contribution. The fast S polarization directions are consistently ENE-WSW, but the split time varies greatly across the study area, showing strong anisotropy (up to 1.48 s) in the western Superior, moderate anisotropy in the eastern Superior, and moderate to low anisotropy in the terranes south of Lake Superior. We locate two localized zones of very low split time (< 0.6 s) adjacent to the MCR: one in the Nipigon Embayment, an MCR-related magmatic feature immediately north of Lake Superior, and the other adjacent to the eastern end of the lake, at the southern end of the Kapuskasing Structural Zone (KSZ). Both low-splitting zones are adjacent to sharp bends in the MCR axis. We interpret these two zones, along with a low-velocity linear feature imaged by a previous tomographic study beneath Minnesota and the Dakotas, as failed lithospheric branches of the MCR. Given that all three of these branches failed to propagate into the Superior Province lithosphere, we propose that the sharp bend of the MCR through Lake Superior is a consequence of the high mechanical strength of the Superior lithosphere ca. 1.1 Ga.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)367-381
Number of pages15
JournalTectonophysics
Volume683
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 30 2016

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continents
Lake Superior
lithosphere
zonation
lake
anisotropy
lakes
wave splitting
brackets
low speed
S waves
rifting
continent
North America
S-wave
terrane
tectonics
polarization
stations
province

Keywords

  • Anisotropy
  • Lithosphere
  • Mid-Continent Rift
  • Nipigon Embayment
  • Shear-wave splitting
  • Superior Province

Cite this

Ola, O., Frederiksen, A. W., Bollmann, T., van der Lee, S., Darbyshire, F., Wolin, E., ... Wysession, M. (2016). Anisotropic zonation in the lithosphere of Central North America: Influence of a strong cratonic lithosphere on the Mid-Continent Rift. Tectonophysics, 683, 367-381. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2016.06.031

Anisotropic zonation in the lithosphere of Central North America : Influence of a strong cratonic lithosphere on the Mid-Continent Rift. / Ola, O.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Bollmann, T.; van der Lee, S.; Darbyshire, F.; Wolin, E.; Revenaugh, J.; Stein, C.; Stein, S.; Wysession, M.

In: Tectonophysics, Vol. 683, 30.06.2016, p. 367-381.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ola, O, Frederiksen, AW, Bollmann, T, van der Lee, S, Darbyshire, F, Wolin, E, Revenaugh, J, Stein, C, Stein, S & Wysession, M 2016, 'Anisotropic zonation in the lithosphere of Central North America: Influence of a strong cratonic lithosphere on the Mid-Continent Rift', Tectonophysics, vol. 683, pp. 367-381. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2016.06.031
Ola, O. ; Frederiksen, A. W. ; Bollmann, T. ; van der Lee, S. ; Darbyshire, F. ; Wolin, E. ; Revenaugh, J. ; Stein, C. ; Stein, S. ; Wysession, M. / Anisotropic zonation in the lithosphere of Central North America : Influence of a strong cratonic lithosphere on the Mid-Continent Rift. In: Tectonophysics. 2016 ; Vol. 683. pp. 367-381.
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T2 - Influence of a strong cratonic lithosphere on the Mid-Continent Rift

AU - Ola, O.

AU - Frederiksen, A. W.

AU - Bollmann, T.

AU - van der Lee, S.

AU - Darbyshire, F.

AU - Wolin, E.

AU - Revenaugh, J.

AU - Stein, C.

AU - Stein, S.

AU - Wysession, M.

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Y1 - 2016/6/30

N2 - We present shear-wave splitting analyses of SKS and SKKS waves recorded at sixteen Superior Province Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) seismic stations on the north shore of Lake Superior, as well as fifteen selected Earthscope Transportable Array instruments south of the lake. These instruments bracket the Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) and sample the Superior, Penokean, Yavapai and Mazatzal tectonic provinces. The data set can be explained by a single layer of anisotropic fabric, which we interpret to be dominated by a lithospheric contribution. The fast S polarization directions are consistently ENE-WSW, but the split time varies greatly across the study area, showing strong anisotropy (up to 1.48 s) in the western Superior, moderate anisotropy in the eastern Superior, and moderate to low anisotropy in the terranes south of Lake Superior. We locate two localized zones of very low split time (< 0.6 s) adjacent to the MCR: one in the Nipigon Embayment, an MCR-related magmatic feature immediately north of Lake Superior, and the other adjacent to the eastern end of the lake, at the southern end of the Kapuskasing Structural Zone (KSZ). Both low-splitting zones are adjacent to sharp bends in the MCR axis. We interpret these two zones, along with a low-velocity linear feature imaged by a previous tomographic study beneath Minnesota and the Dakotas, as failed lithospheric branches of the MCR. Given that all three of these branches failed to propagate into the Superior Province lithosphere, we propose that the sharp bend of the MCR through Lake Superior is a consequence of the high mechanical strength of the Superior lithosphere ca. 1.1 Ga.

AB - We present shear-wave splitting analyses of SKS and SKKS waves recorded at sixteen Superior Province Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) seismic stations on the north shore of Lake Superior, as well as fifteen selected Earthscope Transportable Array instruments south of the lake. These instruments bracket the Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) and sample the Superior, Penokean, Yavapai and Mazatzal tectonic provinces. The data set can be explained by a single layer of anisotropic fabric, which we interpret to be dominated by a lithospheric contribution. The fast S polarization directions are consistently ENE-WSW, but the split time varies greatly across the study area, showing strong anisotropy (up to 1.48 s) in the western Superior, moderate anisotropy in the eastern Superior, and moderate to low anisotropy in the terranes south of Lake Superior. We locate two localized zones of very low split time (< 0.6 s) adjacent to the MCR: one in the Nipigon Embayment, an MCR-related magmatic feature immediately north of Lake Superior, and the other adjacent to the eastern end of the lake, at the southern end of the Kapuskasing Structural Zone (KSZ). Both low-splitting zones are adjacent to sharp bends in the MCR axis. We interpret these two zones, along with a low-velocity linear feature imaged by a previous tomographic study beneath Minnesota and the Dakotas, as failed lithospheric branches of the MCR. Given that all three of these branches failed to propagate into the Superior Province lithosphere, we propose that the sharp bend of the MCR through Lake Superior is a consequence of the high mechanical strength of the Superior lithosphere ca. 1.1 Ga.

KW - Anisotropy

KW - Lithosphere

KW - Mid-Continent Rift

KW - Nipigon Embayment

KW - Shear-wave splitting

KW - Superior Province

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