The first International Symposium on Animal Genomics for Animal Health, held at the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Headquarter, 23-25 October, 2007, Paris, France, assembled more than 250 participants representing research organizations from 26 countries. The symposium included a roundtable discussion on critical needs, challenges and opportunities, and a forward look at the potential applications of animal genomics in animal health research. The aim of the roundtable discussion was to foster a dialogue between scientists working at the cutting edge of animal genomics research and animal health scientists. In an effort to broaden the perspective of the roundtable discussion, the organizers set out four priority areas to advance the use of genome-enabled technologies in animal health research. Contributions were obtained through open discussions and a questionnaire distributed at the start of the symposium. This symposium report provides detailed summaries of the outcome of the roundtable discussion for each of the four priority areas. For each priority, the problems needing to be solved, according to the views of the participants, are identified, including potential solutions, recommendations, and lastly, concrete steps that could be taken to address these problems. This report serves as a roadmap to steer research priorities in animal genomics research.