Objective: To assess the prevalence and features of angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) in an urban population in southern India. Design: A population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants: A total of 2522 (85.4% of those eligible) persons of all ages, including 1399 persons 30 years of age or older, from 24 clusters representative of the population of Hyderabad city. Testing: The participants underwent an interview and detailed eye examination that included logarithm of minimum angle of resolution visual acuity, refraction, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, and gonioscopy; pupil dilatation and stereoscopic fundus evaluation was performed if the risk of angle-closure as a result of dilatation was not believed to be imminent. Humphrey threshold 24-2 visual fields (Humphrey Instruments Inc., San Leandro, CA) were performed when indicated by standardized criteria for disc damage or if intraocular pressure (IOP) was 22 mmHg or more. Main Outcome Measures: An occludable angle was defined as pigmented posterior trabecular meshwork not visible by gonioscopy in three quarters or more of the angle circumference. Manifest primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) was defined as IOP of 22 mmHg or more or glaucomatous optic disc damage with visual field loss in the presence of an occludable angle. An IOP of 22 mmHg or more or glaucomatous optic disc damage in the presence of an occludable angle secondary to an obvious cause was defined as secondary ACG. Results: Manifest PACG and occludable angles without ACG were present in 12 and 24 participants, respectively, with age- and gender-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.71% (0.34%-1.31%) and 1.41% (0.73%-2.09%) in participants 30 years of age or older, and 1.08% (0.36%-1.80%) and 2.21% (1.15%-3.27%) in participants 40 years of age or older, respectively. With multivariate analysis, the prevalence of these two conditions considered together increased significantly with age (P < 0.001); although not statistically significant, these were more common in females (odds ratio 1.70; 95% Cl, 0.82-3.54) and in those belonging to lower socioeconomic strata as compared with middle and upper strata (odds ratio, 1.82; 95% Cl, 0.88-3.74). The odds of manifest PACG were higher in the presence of hyperopia of more than 2 diopters ([D]; odds ratio, 3.69; 95% Cl, 0.89-15.2). Only four of 12 participants (33.3%) with manifest PACG had been previously diagnosed, and one of 12 (8.3%) had peripheral iridotomy performed previously. Manifest PACG had caused blindness in one or both eyes in five of these 12 participants (41.7%); best-corrected distance visual acuity less than 20/400 in one or both eyes in four patients, and acuity less than 20/200 in one eye in another patient. Most (83.3%) of those with manifest PACG could be classified as having chronic form of the disease. We may have underestimated manifest PACG because visual fields were performed only on those with clinical suspicion of optic disc damage. Secondary ACG was present in two participants. Conclusions: The prevalence of PACG in this urban population in southern India is close to that reported recently in a Mongolian population. A large proportion of the PACG in this population was undiagnosed and untreated. Because visual loss resulting from PACG is potentially preventable if peripheral iridotomy or iridectomy is performed in the early stage, strategies for early detection of PACG could reduce the high risk of blindness resulting from PACG seen in this urban population in India.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Supported by the Hyderabad Eye Research Foundation, Hyderabad, India. Rakhi Dandona is supported in part by the R.B. McComas and Hugh Noel Puckle scholarships from the University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.