Renal transplantation in infants has been associated with a high incidence of acute tubular necrosis and of renal artery thrombosis. Since 1978, 24 infants who received an adult kidney transplant at the University of Minnesota have had aggressive administration of intravenous colloids to increase the central venous pressure to 16-20 mm Hg before renal reperfusion. Acute tubular necrosis developed in only two infants, and there were no cases of renal artery thrombosis. Chest radiographic evidence of pulmonary edema was present in the recovery room in seven patients (29%) and within the first four postoperative days in five patients (21%). Yet, only two infants (8.3%) required postoperative mechanical ventilation beyond 24 h to manage fluid overload. With aggressive intravenous colloid administration, infants in renal failure can receive an adult kidney transplant with a low incidence of active tubular necrosis or renal artery thrombosis, but pulmonary edema may develop requiring ventilatory support.