Anesthesia for fetal intervention

Benjamin Kloesel, Michaela K. Farber

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Three types of fetal intervention exist: (1) open midgestational, hysterotomy-based surgery between 18 and 26 weeks of gestation involving exteriorization of the affected fetal body part; (2) ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedures, also called operations on placental support (OOPS), performed on term or near-term fetuses before umbilical cord clamping; and (3) minimally invasive fetal procedures performed throughout gestation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEssential Clinical Anesthesia Review
Subtitle of host publicationKeywords, Questions and Answers for the Boards
PublisherCambridge University Press
Number of pages2
ISBN (Electronic)9781139584005
ISBN (Print)9781107681309
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Cambridge University Press 2015.


  • Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT)
  • Ex utero intrapartum treatment-to-extracorporeal
  • Fetal monitoring
  • Membrane oxygenation (EXIT-to-ECMO)
  • Minimally invasive fetal procedures
  • Operations on placental support (OOPS)


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