Anemia in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients—Etiologies and Management

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1 Scopus citations


Posttransplant anemia (PTA) is a common complication of pediatric kidney transplantation, with a prevalence ranging from 22 to 85%. PTA is categorized as early (within 6 months posttransplant) and late (>6 months posttransplant). Early PTA is typically associated with surgical blood losses and iron deficiency. Late PTA primarily results from graft dysfunction; however, iron deficiency, drug toxicity, and posttransplant inflammation also play a role. PTA is more severe compared with the anemia in glomerular-filtration-rate matched patients with native chronic kidney disease. Treatment of PTA is directed toward the underlying cause. Erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA) are effective; however, their use is limited in the transplant setting. Timely diagnosis and treatment of PTA are vital to prevent long-term adverse outcomes in pediatric transplant recipients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number929504
JournalFrontiers in Pediatrics
StatePublished - Jun 20 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2022 Kouri, Balani and Kizilbash.


  • anemia
  • erythropoietin
  • hepcidin
  • iron deficiency
  • pediatric kidney transplant

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review


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