The subject of proactivity with respect to assuring the future safety, reliability, and economical operation of water-cooled nuclear plants is discussed. This subject is particularly important as these plants are expected to operate for possibly twice their present lives, and there is no experience with failures that might occur in the future for such reactor lifetimes. Proactive planning is the opposite of the reactive response in the past where failures were investigated after they had occurred and not predicted, as they could have been, before they occurred. Proactive research should be aimed at preventing or minimizing especially serious failures in materials and components before such failures occur. This present analysis of the "anatomy of proactivity" considers proactivity more comprehensively than early previous work on the subject. Predicting future failures needs to include considerations of failure modes, influence of management in causing failures, need for improved NDE to identify the initiation of future indications of failures, actions by individuals, and the importance of the organizations in nuclear power. This broader consideration is "comprehensive proactivity." It is the anatomy of this "comprehensive proactivity" that is discussed here.