Analysis of vitamin levels and deficiencies in bariatric surgery patients: a single-institutional analysis

Lisa M. Johnson, Sayeed Ikramuddin, Daniel B. Leslie, Bridget Slusarek, Anthony A. Killeen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Background: Bariatric surgery patients are at risk for vitamin deficiencies. Objectives: Investigate the prevalence of deficiencies of vitamins A, B1, B12, D, and folate in sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients in a single institution. Setting: An academic medical center. Methods: Retrospective chart reviews of 468 bariatric surgery patients (358 SG and 110 RYGB) were analyzed for vitamin levels, calcium, and parathyroid hormone. Both preoperative and postoperative measurements were obtained. Results: Deficiency of vitamin D was the most common, seen in 27% preoperatively. Postoperatively, RYGB patients had a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency than SG patients (11.5% RYGB versus 5.2% SG within the first postoperative year, and 20.3% RYGB versus 13.4% SG after 1 year). Elevated parathyroid hormone was observed in 45% of RYGB patients after 1 year postoperatively. Vitamin A deficiency was uncommon preoperatively (2.7% SG versus 1.7% RYGB), but increased after surgery (9.4% SG versus 15.9% RYGB within 1 year postoperatively, and 5.2% SG versus 7.7% RYGB after 1 year). Vitamin B1 deficiency was observed in 8.1% SG versus 1.7% RYGB patients preoperatively and increased during the first year postoperatively (SG 10.5% and RYGB 13.7%), but improved after 1 year (7.2% SG versus 5.9% RYGB). Less than 2% of Vitamin B12 deficiencies and no folate deficiencies occurred in both SG and RYGB patients. Conclusions: The highest prevalence of vitamin B1 and A deficiencies were seen in the first year postoperatively. Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency were uncommon in our patients. Vitamin D deficiency improved after surgery, but elevated parathyroid hormone was common after RYGB.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1146-1152
Number of pages7
JournalSurgery for Obesity and Related Diseases
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 American Society for Bariatric Surgery


  • Deficiency
  • Nutrition
  • Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
  • Sleeve gastrectomy
  • Vitamin


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