To gain insight into the protective effects of the three components of the zidovudine regimen used in AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) 076 on mother-to-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1, 188 zidovudine-treated women and their untreated infants from five HIV-1 obstetric centers were retrospectively studied. The overall rate of mother- to-infant transmission was 12.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.9%- 18.0%). When the 38 women with <200 CD4 cells/μL were excluded, the mother- to-infant transmission rate was 8.8% (95% CI, 4.6%-14.8%). This rate compares favorably with the 8.3% transmission in the zidovudine arm of the ACTG 076 study. Apart from low (<200/μL) maternal CD4 cells (P = .016), no factors, including the duration of zidovudine therapy during gestation and intravenous administration of zidovudine during labor, affected the rate of mother-to-infant transmission. These findings suggest that antenatal oral zidovudine may be as effective as antenatal oral plus intravenous zidovudine during labor and the three-component ACTG 076 regimen in decreasing mother- to-infant HIV-1 transmission.