Many ligands of adhesion molecules mediate costimulation of T cell activation. The generality of this emerging concept is best determined by using model systems which exploit physiologically relevant ligands. We developed such an “antigen-specific” model system for stimulation of resting CD4 + human T cells using the following purified ligands: (a) major histocompatibility complex class II plus the superantigen Staphylococcus enterotoxin A, to engage the T cell receptor (TCR); (b) adhesion proteins vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1), to provide potential cell surface costimulatory signals; and (c) recombinant interleukin 1β (rlL-1β)/rlL-6 as costimulatory cytokines. In this biochemically defined system, we find that resting CD4 + T cells require costimulation in order to respond to TCR engagement. This costimulation can be provided by VCAM-1 or ICAM-1; however adhesion alone is not sufficient since ELAM-1 mediates adhesion but not costimulation. The cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 by themselves cannot mediate costimulation, but augment the adhesion ligand-mediated costimulation. Direct comparison with the model of TCR/CD3 engagement by CD3 monodonal antibody demonstrated comparable costimulatory requirements in both systems, thereby authenticating the commonly used CD3 model. The costimulation mediated by the activation-dependent interaction of the VLA-4 and LFA-1 integrins with their respective ligands VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 leads to increased IL-2Rα (CD25) expression and proliferation in both CD45RA + CD4 + and CD45RO + CD4 + T cells. The integrins also regulate the secretion of IL-2, IL-4, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In contrast the activation-independent adhesion of CD4 + T cell to ELAM-1 molecules does not lead to T cell stimulation as measured by proliferation, IL-2Rα expression, or cytokine release. These findings imply that adhesion per se is not sufficient for costimulation, but rather that the costimulation conferred by the VLA-4/VCAM-1 and LFA-1/ICAM-1 interactions reflects specialized accessory functions of these integrin pathways. The new finding that VLA-4/VCAM- 1 mediates costimulation adds significance to observations that VCAM-1 is expressed on a unique set of potential antigen-presenting cells in vivo.
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