Analysis of memory codes and cumulative rehearsal in observational learning

Albert Bandura, Robert Jeffery, Daniel L. Bachicha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


The present study examined the influence of memory codes varying in meaningfulness and retrievability and cumulative rehearsal on retention of observationally learned responses over increasing temporal intervals. Symbolic codes combining meaningfulness with retrievability produced superior memory performances, but responses were poorly retained in symbolic representations containing only one of these properties. Individual response analysis further confirmed that the more meaningful the codes incorporating retrieval guides the better are modeled responses learned and retained. Cumulative rehearsal had differential effects on memory performances depending upon the serial input position of the responses and the form into which the modeled behavior was encoded. Code rehearsals facilitated retention of early and intermediate responses which were repeated more than later ones, but this was true mainly for codes vulnerable to loss. The overall findings provide further corroborative evidence that memory performances are governed more by information coding than by associative strengthening processes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)295-305
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Research in Personality
Issue number4
StatePublished - Mar 1974

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
A second line of theorizing depicts observational learning as essentially a template-matching process. In this view, observed behavior is stored ‘This research was supported by Public Health Research Grant M-5162 from the National Institute of Mental Health. *Requests for reprints should be sent to Albert Bandura, Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. 293 Copyright @ 1974 by Academic Press, Inc. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


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