A computational fluid dynamics technique is developed for the study of high-pressure, axisymmetric hypersonic nozzle flows. The effects of intermolecular forces and vibrational nonequilibrium are included in the analysis. The numerical simulation of gases with an arbitrary equation of state is discussed. Simulations for high-pressure nitrogen nozzles (P0 = 138 MPa) demonstrate that both intermolecular forces and vibrational nonequilibrium affect the flow significantly. These nonideal effects tend to increase the Mach number at the nozzle exit plane. In addition, these effects may introduce weak expansion and compression waves in the nozzle that degrade test section flow quality. Thus, they must be included in the design and analysis of high-pressure hypersonic nozzles.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Support for this work was provided by NASA under Grant NAGW-1331 to the Mars Mission Research Center at North Caro-lina State University. Additional funding was supplied by the North Carolina Space Grant Consortium. Patrick Canupp received support from a U.S. Department of Energy Computational Science Graduate Fellowship. Computer time was provided by the North Carolina Supercomputing Center.