Analysis of four-way two-dimensional liquid chromatography-diode array data: Application to metabolomics

Sarah E.G. Porter, Dwight R. Stoll, Sarah C. Rutan, Peter W. Carr, Jerry D. Cohen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

108 Scopus citations


Two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) is rapidly gaining popularity for the analysis of very complex mixtures, including proteomic and metabolomic samples. It provides an effective strategy for separating such samples, because the resolving power of 2D-LC is far superior to that of traditional single-dimension separations. The present work focuses on the development of data analysis methods for the extremely large data sets, on the order of 10 million data points, generated by 2D-LC with diode-array detection (DAD). Specifically, we have applied and adapted chemometric methods to the analysis of maize seedling digests, focusing on compounds related to the biosynthetic pathways of indole-3-acetic acid, the primary growth regulator in plants. The chemometric techniques of window target testing factor analysis (WTTFA), along with parallel factor analysis - alternating least squares (PARAFAC-ALS) were used to analyze 2D-LC-DAD chromatograms of a sample composed of 26 indolic standards, 2 extracts of mutant orange pericarp maize seedlings, 2 extracts of wild-type maize seedlings, and a blank sample. The indolic compounds studied belonged to six spectrally unique groups, and WTTFA was able to specifically identify the presence or absence of any of the 26 indolic standards in the mutant and wild-type samples. A PARAFAC-ALS algorithm and an ALS algorithm with flexible constraints were successfully applied to resolve the spectrally rank deficient data and to demonstrate the quantitative potential of multivariate curve resolution methods. Using this procedure, 95 total peaks were resolved in the data set analyzed. Of those 95 peaks, 45 were found in both the mutant and wild-type maize samples, 16 peaks were unique to the mutant maize samples, 13 peaks were unique to the wild-type maize samples, and 15 peaks were unique to the standard chromatograms. Of the 26 standards included in the data set, several indole acetic acid conjugates were identified and quantified in the maize samples at levels of approximately 0.3-2 μg/g plant material.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5559-5569
Number of pages11
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Issue number15
StatePublished - Aug 1 2006


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