Analysis of a New Histological and Molecular-Based Classification of Canine Mammary Neoplasia

K. S. Im, N. H. Kim, H. Y. Lim, H. W. Kim, J. I. Shin, J. H. Sur

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57 Scopus citations


Canine mammary tumors (CMTs) are morphologically and biologically heterogeneous, prompting several attempts to classify such tumors on the basis of their histopathological characteristics. Recently, molecular-based analysis methods borrowed from human breast cancer research have also been applied to the classification of CMTs. In this study, canine mammary neoplasms (n = 648) occurring in Korea from 2008 to 2011 were analyzed according to the histological classification and grading system proposed by Goldschmidtet al.Furthermore, randomly selected mammary carcinomas (n = 159) were classified according to the molecular subtype using immunohistochemical characteristics. Canine mammary neoplasia accounted for 52.6% (648/1250) of the tumors in female dogs, and 51.7% (340/648) of these were malignant. All of the carcinoma-anaplastic subtypes were grade III tumors (5/5, 100%), while most of the carcinoma-tubular subtypes (15/18, 83.3%) and carcinoma arising in a complex adenoma/mixed-tumor subtype (115/135, 85.2%) were grade I tumors. Tumor cell invasion into lymphatic vessels was most common in the comedocarcinoma, carcinoma-anaplastic, and inflammatory carcinoma subtypes. The most frequently occurring molecular subtype (70/159, 44%) was luminal A. However, the basal-like subtype was the most malignant and was frequently associated with grade III tumors and lymphatic invasion. The carcinoma-solid subtypes were also often of the basal-like subtype. Reclassification of CMTs using the newly proposed histopathological classification system and molecular subtyping could aid in determining the prognosis and the most suitable anticancer treatment for each case.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)549-559
Number of pages11
JournalVeterinary pathology
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2014

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, andor publication of this article: This paper was supported by the Konkuk University in 2013.


  • canine mammary neoplasia
  • histological classification
  • histological grading
  • molecular subtype


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