4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and its metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) are carcinogenic in animal models and are believed to play an important role in human lung carcinogenesis for cigarette smokers. Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of these tobacco-specific nitrosamines produces reactive species that alkylate DNA in the form of pyridyloxobutyl (POB)- or pyridylhydroxybutyl (PHB)-DNA adducts. Understanding the formation mechanism and overall levels of these adducts can potentially enhance cancer prevention methods through the identification of particularly susceptible smokers. Previous studies have identified and measured a panel of POB- and PHB-DNA base adducts of dGuo, dCyd, and Thd; however, dAdo adducts have yet to be determined. In this study, we complete this DNA adduct panel by identifying and quantifying levels of NNK- and NNAL-derived dAdo adducts in vitro and in vivo. To accomplish this, we synthesized standards for expected dAdo-derived DNA adducts and used isotope-dilution LC-ESI + -MS/MS to identify POB adducts formed in vitro from the reaction of 4-(acetoxymethylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNKOAc) with calf thymus DNA. Adduct levels were then quantified in lung and liver DNA of rats chronically treated with NNK or NNAL for 50 weeks using similar LC-MS detection methods. The in vitro studies identified N 6 -POB-dAdo and N 1 -POB-dIno as products of the reaction of NNKOAc with DNA, which supports our proposed mechanism of formation. Though both N 6 -dAdo and N 1 -dIno adducts were found in vitro, only N 6 -dAdo adducts were found in vivo, implying possible intervention by DNA repair mechanisms. Analogous to previous studies, levels of N 6 -POB-dAdo and N 6 -PHB-dAdo varied both with tissue and treatment type. Despite the adduct levels being relatively modest compared to most other POB- and PHB-DNA adducts, they may play a biological role and could be used in future studies as NNK- and NNAL-specific DNA damage biomarkers.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by grant no. CA-81301 from the U.S. National Cancer Institute. Salary support for P.W.V. was provided by the U.S. National Cancer Institute [grant R50-CA211256]. The Analytical Biochemistry Shared Resource is partially supported by National Cancer Institute Cancer Center Support grant CA-77598.
*Phone: (612) 624-7604. Fax: (612) 624-3869. E-mail: email@example.com. ORCID Peter W. Villalta: 0000-0002-0067-3083 Bin Ma: 0000-0002-7549-2658 Stephen S. Hecht: 0000-0001-7228-1356 Funding This study was supported by grant no. CA-81301 from the U.S. National Cancer Institute. Salary support for P.W.V. was provided by the U.S. National Cancer Institute [grant R50-CA211256]. The Analytical Biochemistry Shared Resource is partially supported by National Cancer Institute Cancer Center Support grant CA-77598. Notes The authors declare no competing financial interest.