An Overview of Time-Based Computing with Stochastic Constructs

M. Hassan Najafi, Shiva Jamali-Zavareh, David J. Lilja, Marc D. Riedel, Kia Bazargan, Ramesh Harjani

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Computing on time-based data is a recent evolution of research in stochastic computing. As with stochastic computing, complex functions can be computed with remarkably low area cost. Unlike stochastic computing, the latency and energy efficiency are very favorable compared to computations on conventional binary radix. In this article, the authors review and evaluate the design and implementation of arithmetic operations on time-encoded signals, with a particular focus on low power. The advantages, challenges, and potential applications are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8119711
Pages (from-to)62-71
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Micro
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by National Science Foundation grant no. CCF-1408123. Any opinions, findings and conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF.

Publisher Copyright:
© 1981-2012 IEEE.


  • energy-efficient computing
  • mixed-signal design
  • pulse width modulation
  • stochastic computing (SC)
  • time-based computing
  • time-encoded values
  • ultra-low-power processing


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