We compared the fasting and postprandial response to a National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) II diet with that of a diet high in total (40% of energy) and saturated fat. In free-living conditions, 17 healthy normolipidemic, normoglycemic men and women consumed a high-fat diet, a maintenance diet and the NCEP II diet, for 1 mo each. At the completion of each dietary period, an oral fat load (70 g/m2 body surface area) was administered and plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) determined every 2 h for 8 h. Compared with the high-fat phase, the NCEP II diet was associated with significantly lower energy intake (12.1 ± 1.1 vs. 7 ± 0.7 MJ/d) and final body weight (78 ± 3.8 vs. 76.3 ± 3.5 kg) (P < 0.01). Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and ApoB concentrations were also significantly lower when subjects consumed the NCEP II diet rather than the high-fat diet (P ± 0.004). There were no significant differences in subjects fasting TAG, glucose or insulin concentration between the high fat and NCEP II diet periods. However, the postprandial plasma TAG response to the fat load was lower after completing the NCEP II than after the high-fat diet period (P = 0.045). Under free-living conditions, a NCEP II diet was associated with weight loss and a decrease in postprandial but not fasting TAG. Because dietary alteration may not affect fasting TAG levels, thorough assessment of a dietary intervention should include measurements of postprandial TAG.
- NCEP II diet
- Trans-fatty acids