An investigation of the factor structure of the torrance tests of creative thinking

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This study investigated the factorial structure of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) Figural Form A with an aim to find out whether the two-factor structure of creative thinking established by Kim and Kim, Cramond, and Bandalos holds true for the older participants. Data were gathered from 996 8th grade students and 748 11th grade students from a suburban public school system in Minnesota. Based on previous research and Kirton’s Adaption-Innovation (KAI) theory, one and two-factor models were tested in the study. Upon checking the related assumptions, confirmatory factor analyses with Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation were conducted using LISREL 8.71. The results indicated that a two-factor model established by Kim and her colleagues was a better fit than a one-factor model. This shows that fluency and originality load onto the latent variable termed the innovative factor, elaboration and abstractness of titles load onto the latent variable termed the adaptive factor, and resistance to premature closure loads on both latent variables. Our results suggest that any efforts to assess and promote creativity should take into consideration the two domains of creativity posited in KAI theory.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)515-528
Number of pages14
JournalKuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported in part by a grant from the Metropolitan Research Grant Program of the University Metropolitan Consortium and the University of Minnesota Center for Urban and Regional Affairs. The authors express thanks to the School District personnel, who helped in the implementation of the research and in the collection of the data.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 EDAM.


  • Adaption-Innovation theory
  • Creative thinking
  • Creativity
  • Factorial structure
  • TTCT


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