Developments in cognitive science (e.g., psychology, artificial intelligence, and expert systems) provide a framework to propose an instructional strategy planning model that links knowledge acquisition and employment with specific instructional strategies. The model presented in this article identifies unique computer-based instructional strategies to improve both learning and cognition. Using a meta-learning theory, the storage memory system components of declarative, procedural, and conceptual knowledge are respectively linked to drill and practice, tutorial, and task-oriented simulation strategies. Likewise, for the retrieval memory system components (i.e., differentiation, integration, and creation), the instructional strategies include problem-oriented simulations and self-directed experiences. Each of the instructional strategies are composed of variables and conditions that have been empirically tested and shown to improve specific forms of knowledge acquisition and employment.