An implementation model to increase the effectiveness of alcohol control policies

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13 Scopus citations


Purpose. Public policies that reduce the availability of alcohol in communities can reduce consumption and related harms. In this article, we propose a practical model to guide alcohol policy implementation. Approach. The conceptual model is informed by a case study of three U.S. cities that adopted restrictions on high-alcohol malt liquor sales. Setting. The three cities included Seattle, Washington; Santa Ana, California; and Washington, D.C. Participants. Participants (n = 39) represented neighborhood groups, city officials, local police, Alcohol Beverage Control (board members and enforcement personnel), alcohol retailers, alcohol industry representatives, and advocacy and service organizations. Method. We conducted key informant interviews with participants in each city. We coded and analyzed the data by using a grounded theory approach. Findings were used to identify and illustrate model components. Results. Implementation components include building public awareness and educating stakeholders, monitoring and enforcing compliance, evaluating process and outcomes, and institutionalizing the policy. The experiences of study cities illustrate the importance of these activities in maintaining policy effectiveness; for example, a lack of enforcement resources appeared to contribute to the erosion of compliance over time. Conclusion. The model addresses an important gap in alcohol policy research. It is intended to spur further research on the subject, provide a guide for policy practitioners, and ultimately improve the long-term effectiveness of alcohol control policies. (Am J Health Promot 2014;28[5]: 328-335.)

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)328-335
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Health Promotion
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2014


  • Alcohol
  • Implementation
  • Malt Liquor
  • Model
  • Policy
  • Prevention Research


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