An exploratory study of users' evaluations of the accuracy and fidelity of a three-dimensional garment simulation

Dong Eun Kim, Karen Labat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Garment simulation technology is expected to help reduce consumers' apparel fit dissatisfaction in online shopping. However, the simulated garments must be accurate representations of real garments for consumers to accept this technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate users' evaluations of the fidelity and accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) garment simulation technology used in a virtual online shopping scenario. Ferwerda's Functional Realism Framework was used to examine garment simulation realism. Thirty-seven women participated in the study. Participants were scanned, and 3D virtual models were made from their scans. A set of pants (misses 2–20) was developed. These pants patterns were digitally input to the computer to develop virtual pants that were fit to the participants' virtual models. Each participant evaluated the virtual pants fit and the real pants fit in a simulated shopping experience. Participants evaluated fit at 13 critical areas using a seven-point scale and then explained their evaluations during an interview. The overall accuracy and fidelity of the virtual simulation technology was moderately good, but not to the extent that the participants could perform all important aspects of the online fit evaluation. The overall physical appearances of the virtual pants were similar to the real pants. The pants length and the waistband position were accurately represented; however, fabric wrinkles were not accurately represented in the virtual simulation. Garment and body shape relationships were not accurately represented due to technological limitations. This study revealed aspects of garment simulation technology that warrant further research and development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)171-184
Number of pages14
JournalTextile Research Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by Thesis Research Grants from the University of Minnesota Graduate School and College of Design.

Funding Information:
The authors acknowledge the National Science Foundation (Grant No. 0321172.) for providing 3D technologies available in the University of Minnesota Human Dimensioning© Laboratory.


  • body scan
  • computer graphics
  • fit
  • size
  • three-dimensional garment simulation
  • virtual


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