This exploratory study extends the research on schema-based strategy instruction by investigating its effects on the mathematical problem solving of 4 middle school students with learning disabilities who were low-performing in mathematics. A multiple-probe-across-participants design included baseline, treatment, generalization, and maintenance. During treatment, students received schema strategy training in problem schemata (conceptual understanding) and problem solution (procedural understanding). Results indicated that the schema-based strategy was effective in substantially increasing the number of correctly solved multiplication and division word problems for all 4 participants. Maintenance of strategy effects was evident for 10, 5 1/2, and 2 1/2 weeks following the termination of instruction for Sara, Tony, and Percy, respectively. In addition, the effects of instruction generalized to novel word problems for all 4 participants.