An experimental model to evaluate the role of transport vehicles as a source of transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus to susceptible pigs.

Scott A. Dee, John Deen, Satoshi Otake, Carlos Pijoan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

66 Scopus citations

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in a scale-model trailer that was required to infect susceptible pigs, evaluate the potential of PRRSV-contaminated transport vehicles to infect naïve pigs and assess 4 sanitation programs for the prevention of virus spread. To maximize study power, scale models (1:150) of weaned-pig trailers were constructed that provided an animal density equal to that of an actual weaned-pig trailer capable of transporting 300 pigs. The 1st aim involved contaminating the interior of the model trailers with various concentrations (10(1) to 10(4) TCID50/mL) of PRRSV MN 30-100, then housing sentinel pigs in the trailers for 2 h. Pigs exposed to trailers contaminated with > or = 10(3) TCID50/mL became infected. The 2nd aim involved housing experimentally infected seeder pigs in trailers for 2 h, then directly introducing sentinel pigs for 2 h. Infection of sentinels was demonstrated in 3 of 4 replicates. The 3rd aim involved applying 1 of 4 sanitation procedures (treatments) to contaminated trailers. Treatment 1 consisted of manual scraping of the interior to remove soiled bedding (wood chips). Treatment 2 consisted of bedding removal, washing (80 degrees C, 20,500 kPa), and disinfecting (with 1:256 phenol; 10-min contact time). Treatment 3 consisted of treatment 2, followed by freezing and thawing. Treatment 4 consisted of bedding removal, washing, disinfecting, and drying. Ten replicates were conducted per treatment. Pretreatment swabs from all trailers tested positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Post-treatment swabs were PCR-positive for all trailers except those that were washed, disinfected, and dried. Infection of sentinel pigs by PRRSV was also detected by PCR after all treatments except washing, disinfecting, and drying. Under the conditions of this study, drying appeared to be an important component of a sanitation program for ensuring PRRSV biosecurity of transport vehicles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)128-133
Number of pages6
JournalCanadian journal of veterinary research = Revue canadienne de recherche vétérinaire
Volume68
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2004

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