Background: Medication non-adherence is a problem of critical importance, affecting approximately 50% of all persons taking at least one regularly scheduled prescription medication and costing the United States more than $100 billion annually. Traditional data sources for identifying and resolving medication non-adherence in community pharmacies include prescription fill histories. However, medication possession does not necessarily mean patients are taking their medications as prescribed. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs), measuring adherence challenges pertaining to both remembering and intention to take medication, offer a rich data source for pharmacists and prescribers to use to resolve medication non-adherence. PatientToc™ is a PROs collection software developed to facilitate collection of PROs data from low-literacy and non-English speaking patients in Los Angeles. Objectives: This study will evaluate the spread and scale of PatientToc™ from primary care to community pharmacies for the collection and use of PROs data pertaining to medication adherence. Methods: The following implementation and evaluation steps will be conducted: 1) a pre-implementation developmental formative evaluation to determine community pharmacy workflow and current practices for identifying and resolving medication non-adherence, potential barriers and facilitators to PatientToc™ implementation, and to create a draft implementation toolkit, 2) two plan-do-study-act cycles to refine an implementation toolkit for spreading and scaling implementation of PatientToc™ in community pharmacies, and 3) a comprehensive, theory-driven evaluation of the quality of care, implementation, and patient health outcomes of spreading and scaling PatientToc™ to community pharmacies. Expected impact: This research will inform long-term collection and use of PROs data pertaining to medication adherence in community pharmacies.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by grant number R18HS025943 (PI: Snyder) from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality . The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality . Dr. Adeoye-Olatunde is supported by the Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute funded in part by award number TL1TR001107 (A. Shekhar, PI) from the National Institutes of Health , National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences , Clinical and Translational Sciences Award , outside the work submitted. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. A portion of Dr. Curran's salary is supported by grant (UL1TR003107) awarded to the Translation Research Institute at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) .
© 2020 Elsevier Inc.
- Community pharmacy
- Health information technology
- Patient-reported outcomes