An evaluation of carbon indicators of soil health in long-term agricultural experiments

Daniel Liptzin, Charlotte E. Norris, Shannon B. Cappellazzi, G. Mac Bean, Michael Cope, Kelsey L.H. Greub, Elizabeth L. Rieke, Paul W. Tracy, Ezra Aberle, Amanda Ashworth, Oscar Bañuelos Tavarez, Andy I. Bary, R. L. Baumhardt, Alberto Borbón Gracia, Daniel C. Brainard, Jameson R. Brennan, Dolores Briones Reyes, Darren Bruhjell, Cameron N. Carlyle, James J.W. CrawfordCody F. Creech, Steve W. Culman, Bill Deen, Curtis J. Dell, Justin D. Derner, Thomas F. Ducey, Sjoerd W. Duiker, Miles F. Dyck, Benjamin H. Ellert, Martin H. Entz, Avelino Espinosa Solorio, Steven J. Fonte, Simon Fonteyne, Ann Marie Fortuna, Jamie L. Foster, Lisa M. Fultz, Audrey V. Gamble, Charles M. Geddes, Deirdre Griffin-LaHue, John H. Grove, Stephen K. Hamilton, Xiying Hao, Zachary D. Hayden, Nora Honsdorf, Julie A. Howe, James A. Ippolito, Gregg A. Johnson, Mark A. Kautz, Newell R. Kitchen, Sandeep Kumar, Kirsten S.M. Kurtz, Francis J. Larney, Katie L. Lewis, Matt Liebman, Antonio Lopez Ramirez, Stephen Machado, Bijesh Maharjan, Miguel Angel Martinez Gamiño, William E. May, Mitchel P. McClaran, Marshall D. McDaniel, Neville Millar, Jeffrey P. Mitchell, Amber D. Moore, Philip A. Moore, Manuel Mora Gutiérrez, Kelly A. Nelson, Emmanuel C. Omondi, Shannon L. Osborne, Leodegario Osorio Alcalá, Philip Owens, Eugenia M. Pena-Yewtukhiw, Hanna J. Poffenbarger, Brenda Ponce Lira, Jennifer R. Reeve, Timothy M. Reinbott, Mark S. Reiter, Edwin L. Ritchey, Kraig L. Roozeboom, Yichao Rui, Amir Sadeghpour, Upendra M. Sainju, Gregg R. Sanford, William F. Schillinger, Robert R. Schindelbeck, Meagan E. Schipanski, Alan J. Schlegel, Kate M. Scow, Lucretia A. Sherrod, Amy L. Shober, Sudeep S. Sidhu, Ernesto Solís Moya, Mervin St Luce, Jeffrey S. Strock, Andrew E. Suyker, Virginia R. Sykes, Haiying Tao, Alberto Trujillo Campos, Laura L. Van Eerd, Harold van Es, Nele Verhulst, Tony J. Vyn, Yutao Wang, Dexter B. Watts, David L. Wright, Tiequan Zhang, Cristine L.S. Morgan, C. Wayne Honeycutt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Scopus citations


Soil organic carbon (SOC) is closely tied to soil health. However, additional biological indicators may also provide insight about C dynamics and microbial activity. We used SOC and the other C indicators (potential C mineralization, permanganate oxidizable C, water extractable organic C, and β-glucosidase enzyme activity) from the North American Project to Evaluate Soil Health Measurements to examine the continental-scale drivers of these indicators, the relationships among indicators, and the effects of soil health practices on indicator values. All indicators had greater values at cooler temperatures, and most were greater with increased precipitation and clay content. The indicators were strongly correlated with each other at the site-level, with the strongest relationship between SOC and permanganate oxidizable C. The indicator values responded positively to decreased tillage, inclusion of cover crops, application of organic nutrients, and retention of crop residue, but not the number of harvested crops in a rotation. The effect of decreased tillage on the C indicators was generally greater at sites with higher precipitation. The magnitude and direction of the response to soil health practices was consistent across indicators within a site but measuring at least two indicators would provide additional confidence of the effects of management, especially for tillage. All C indicators responded to management, an essential criterion for evaluating soil health. Balancing the cost, sensitivity, interpretability, and availability at commercial labs, a 24-hr potential C mineralization assay could deliver the most benefit to measure in conjunction with SOC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number108708
JournalSoil Biology and Biochemistry
StatePublished - Sep 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research (grant ID 523926), General Mills, and The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation.Names of laboratories and equipment were given to provide specific information and do not constitute endorsement by the authors. The NAPESHM project is part of a broader effort titled, “Assessing and Expanding Soil Health for Production, Economic, and Environmental Benefits”. The project is funded by the Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research (grant ID 523926), General Mills, and The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation. The content of this publication is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research. The authors acknowledge the following individuals and groups for their contribution to the long-term research sites: Robert Dungan, Joshua Heitman, April Leytem, Mark Liebig, Deanna Osmond, Michael Thompson, the Center for Environmental Farming Systems in Goldsboro NC (Melissa Bell, Nancy Creamer, Alan Franzluebbers, Tomas Moreno, Paul Mueller, Chris Reberg-Horton), and C.S. Tan, T.W. Welacky, D. Lawrence, M.R. Reeb, M. Soultani, and K. Rinas from Harrow Research and Development Center, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

Funding Information:
Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research (grant ID 523926 ), General Mills , and The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors


  • Potential carbon mineralization
  • Soil health indicators
  • Soil management
  • Soil organic carbon
  • Tillage


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