An Approach to Investigating Linkage for Bipolar Disorder Using Large Costa Rican Pedigrees

N. B. Freimer, V. I. Reus, M. Escamilla, M. Spesny, L. Smith, S. Service, A. Gallegos, L. Meza, S. Batki, S. Vinogradov, P. Leon, L. A. Sandkuijl

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44 Scopus citations


Despite the evidence that major gene effects exist for bipolar disorder (BP), efforts to map BP loci have so far been unsuccessful. A strategy for mapping BP loci is described, focused on investigation of large pedigrees from a genetically homogenous population, that of Costa Rica. This approach is based on the use of a conservative definition of the BP phenotype in preparation for whole genome screening with polymorphic markers. Linkage simulation analyses are utilized to indicate the probability of detecting evidence suggestive of linkage, using these pedigrees. These analyses are performed under a series of single locus models, ranging from recessive to nearly dominant, utilizing both lod score and affected pedigree member analyses. Additional calculations demonstrate that with any of the models employed, most of the information for linkage derives from affected rather than unaffected individuals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)254-263
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics, Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 31 1996


  • Bipolar disorder type I
  • Isolated populations
  • Linkage analysis
  • Linkage simulation


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