An analysis of prereferral interventions

James E. Ysseldyke, Bob Pianta, Sandra Christenson, Jing‐Jen ‐J Wang, Bob Algozzine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


The interventions used by 105 elementary classroom teachers before referring students for psychoeducational evaluation were examined. Analyses were conducted on: (a) types, combinations, and duration of preferral interventions; (b) individuals spoken with prior to referral; and (c) the relationship between prereferral interventions and reasons for referral. Most interventions appeared to be teacher‐directed actions, ones that sometimes were influenced by consultation, most were implemented for an unspecified time period with few measures of observed success or failure. Most teachers used combinations of interventions; few types of interventions were related to the reasons for referral cited by the teachers. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the role of prereferral intervention in the referral process, and the role of consultation in the intervention process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)184-190
Number of pages7
JournalPsychology in the Schools
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1983


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