Ammonia combustion and emissions in practical applications: a review

Mohammad Alnajideen, Hao Shi, William Northrop, David Emberson, Seamus P Kane, Pawel Czyzewski, Mustafa Alnaeli, Syed Mashruk, Kevin Rouwenhorst, Chunkan Yu, Sven Eckart, Agustin Valera-Medina

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Ammonia is emerging as a viable alternative to fossil fuels in combustion systems, aiding in the reduction of carbon emissions. However, its use faces challenges, including NOx emissions and low flame speed. Innovative approaches and technologies have significantly advanced the development and implementation of ammonia as a zero-carbon fuel. This review explores current advancements in using ammonia as a fuel substitute, highlighting the complexities that various systems need to overcome before reaching full commercial maturity in support of practical decarbonising global strategies. Different from other reviews, this article incorporates insights of various industrial partners currently working towards green ammonia technologies. The work further addresses fundamental complexities of ammonia combustion, crucial for its practical and industrial implementation in various types of equipment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number13
JournalCarbon Neutrality
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2024

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© The Author(s) 2024.


  • Alternative fuels
  • Ammonia combustion
  • Ammonia emissions
  • Applications
  • Technology challenges


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