Alternatives to retention and social promotion: The availability of instructional options

Dawn M. Picklo, Sandra L. Christenson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences exist in the availability of instructional options for struggling students and students who did not pass state-required tests based on three school characteristics: retention practices, awards or sanctions, and school level. Participants were 242 teachers and school psychologists from 99 elementary and middle or junior high schools across 19 states that have required exit exams. Participants were asked to complete a survey that addressed the availability of instructional options. Descriptive statistics showed that there was overlap in the instructional options that respondents reported using frequently regardless of school characteristics. For general education teachers' responses, there was a significant main effect of school level. For special education teachers and school psychologists, all other main effects and interactions were not significant.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)258-268
Number of pages11
JournalRemedial and Special Education
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2005


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