Varying length of messenger RNA (mRNA) 3'-untranslated region is generated by alternating the usage of polyadenylation sites during pre-mRNA processing. It is prevalent through all eukaryotes and has emerged as a key mechanism for controlling gene expression. Alternative polyadenylation (APA) plays an important role for cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. In this review, we discuss the functions of APA related with various physiological conditions including cellular metabolism, mRNA processing, and protein diversity in a variety of disease models. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying APA regulation, such as variations in the concentration of mRNA processing factors and RNA-binding proteins, as well as global transcriptome changes under cellular signaling pathway.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This works was supported by National Institutes of Health (1R01GM113952-01A1) and Department of Defense-Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (W81XWH- 16-1-0135) to Jeongsik Yong
© 2017 Korean Endocrine Society.
- 3' Untranslated regions
- RNA 3' end processing
- TOR serine-threonine kinases