We studied patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) over age 50 and in first complete remission (CR1) after adult unrelated donor (URD) (n = 441, 8/8 HLA matched; n = 94, 7/8 HLA matched) or umbilical cord blood (UCB; n = 205) transplantations. UCB recipients achieved CR1 within 8 weeks less often, and received reduced-intensity conditioning and cyclosporine-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis more often. Neutrophil recovery was slower in UCB (69% by day 28) compared with 8/8 HLA-matched URD (97%) and 7/8 HLA-matched (91%) (P < .001) recipients. Three-year transplantation-related mortality (TRM) was higher and leukemia-free survival (LFS) lower with UCB (35% and 28%, respectively) versus 8/8 HLA-matched URD (27% and 39%, respectively). TRM was higher in 7/8 HLA-matched URD (41%, P = .01), but LFS was similar at 34% (P = .39). Three-year chronic GVHD was the lowest in UCB (28%) versus 53% and 59% in 8/8 and 7/8 HLA-matched URD recipients, respectively. Three-year survival was 43% in 8/8 HLA-matched URD (95% confidence interval [CI], 38% to 48%), 30% in UCB (95% CI, 23% to 37%) (P = .002) and 37% in 7/8 URD (95% CI, 27 to 46). Allotransplantation for AML in CR1 with any of these grafts extends LFS for over one third of older patients. In the absence of an 8/8 HLA-matched URD or when transplantation is needed urgently, UCB can provide extended survival. Less frequent chronic GVHD with UCB transplantation may be of particular value for older patients.
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Financial disclosure: Supported in part by grants from the NIH and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) , Oxford Biomedical Research Centre at Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Oxford .
- Acute myeloid leukemia
- Allogeneic transplantation
- Umbilical cord blood
- Unrelated donors