The C terminus of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein vpr acts in viral cell cycle arrest, nuclear localization, and apoptosis. Polymorphisms in this region are described in series of long-term nonprogression cases. We determined vpr sequences of archived baseline specimens from 96 participants in a historical trial of single- versus double-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. These sequences were then analyzed by study-entry and -outcome characteristics such as baseline absolute CD4 + T cell count, prior treatment, CD4+ T cell response, and clinical endpoints. Frequency of C-terminal mutations did not correlate to any measures of disease intensity. Changes in that portion of vpr did not attenuate disease.