Allocation of energy inputs among the end-uses in the US petroleum and coal products industry

Nesrin Ozalp, Barry Hyman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


This paper models the allocation of energy inputs in the US petroleum and coal products industry by allocating combustible fuel and renewable energy inputs among generic end-uses, including intermediate conversions through onsite power and steam generation. This analysis, called an energy end-use model, showed that 72% of the fuel input in the US petroleum and coal products industry goes to onsite steam and power generation, whereas 28% goes directly to end-uses. Eight percent of the boiler output is used for power generation, 72% goes directly to end-uses, and 20% is waste heat. Among the end-uses, process heating is the biggest energy user with a total energy consumption of 2338 PJ, whereas machine drive is the biggest electricity consumer with a consumption of 168 PJ. This paper also provides estimates of the uncertainty of the data. The approach to create this model is applicable to all other industries for which data is available and the model is consistent with US Department of Energy data for 1998. When used in conjunction with similar models for other years, it can be used to identify the changes and trends in energy utilization even at the prime mover level of detail.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1460-1470
Number of pages11
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2007

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by US Department of Energy through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under Task Order 11457 of Master Agreement 6630, and through a research agreement with the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. We would like to thank to Dr. Joseph M. Roop of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for his assistance.


  • Allocation
  • End-use
  • Energy
  • Petroleum industry
  • United states


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