All-solid-state reference electrodes based on colloid-imprinted mesoporous carbon and their application in disposable paper-based potentiometric sensing devices

Jinbo Hu, Kieu T. Ho, Xu U. Zou, William H. Smyrl, Andreas Stein, Philippe Bühlmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

49 Scopus citations

Abstract

Reference electrodes are used in almost every electroanalytical measurement. Here, all-solid-state reference electrodes are described that employ colloid-imprinted mesoporous (CIM) carbon as solid contact and a poly(vinyl chloride) reference membrane to contact the sample. Such a reference membrane is doped with a moderately hydrophilic ionic liquid and a hydrophobic redox couple, leading to well-defined constant potentials at the interfaces of this membrane to the sample and to the solid contact, respectively. Due to the intrinsic properties of CIM carbon, reference electrodes with a CIM carbon solid contact exhibit excellent resistance to common interfering agents such as light and O2, with outstanding potential stability in continuous potentiometric measurements. The potential drift of CIM carbon-based reference electrodes without redox couple is as low as 1.7 μV/h over 110 h, making them the most stable all-solid-state reference electrodes reported so far. To demonstrate the compatibility of CIM carbon-based reference electrodes with miniaturized potentiometric systems, these reference electrodes were integrated into paper-based potentiometric sensing devices, successfully replacing the conventional reference electrode with its reference electrolyte solution. As a proof of concept, disposable paper-based Cl- sensing devices that contain stencil-printed Ag/AgCl-based Cl- selective electrodes and CIM carbon-based reference electrodes were constructed. These sensing devices are inexpensive, easy to use, and offer highly reproducible Cl- measurements with sample volumes as low as 10 μL.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2981-2987
Number of pages7
JournalAnalytical chemistry
Volume87
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 3 2015

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