The Bernstein-Sato polynomial (or global b-function) is an important invariant in singularity theory, which can be computed using symbolic methods in the theory of D-modules. After providing a survey of known algorithms for computing the global b-function, we develop a new method to compute the local b-function for a single polynomial. We then develop algorithms that compute generalized Bernstein-Sato polynomials of Budur-MustaÇâ-Saito and Shibuta for an arbitrary polynomial ideal. These lead to computations of log canonical thresholds, jumping coefficients, and multiplier ideals. Our algorithm for multiplier ideals simplifies that of Shibuta and shares a common subroutine with our local b-function algorithm. The algorithms we present have been implemented in the D-modules package of the computer algebra system Macaulay2.