The Thr54 allele of the intestinal fatty acid-binding protein Ala54Thr functional polymorphism (FABP2) is associated with increased fat oxidation and insulin resistance. We determined the cross-sectional associations of the FABP2 gene with lipid levels and insulin resistance in 2148 participants who completed the year-20 examination of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. No significant difference in total cholesterol, low-density or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol ratio, or homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was found between FABP2 genotypes. However, in the presence of a high-saturated fat diet (≥53.2 g/d, the 90th percentile for the population), the AA/AG genotypes (carriers of the Thr54 allele) of FABP2 had statistically significantly higher levels of log(HOMA-IR) (P = .006) and a lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol ratio (P = .03), and borderline statistically significantly higher levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and log(triglycerides) (P values = .08, .07, and .05, respectively) compared with those with the GG genotype (Ala54 homozygotes). Lipid levels and log(HOMA-IR) did not vary by genotype with saturated fat intake less than 53.2 g/d. Limiting dietary saturated fat intake may be particularly important among carriers of the A allele of FABP2.