Air-quality-related health damages of maize

Jason D Hill, Andrew Goodkind, Christopher M Tessum, Sumil Thakrar, David Tilman, Stephen Polasky, Tim Smith, Natalie D Hunt, Kimberley Mullins, Michael Clark, Julian Marshall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Agriculture is essential for feeding the large and growing world population, but it can also generate pollution that harms ecosystems and human health. Here, we explore the human health effects of air pollution caused by the production of maize—a key agricultural crop that is used for animal feed, ethanol biofuel and human consumption. We use county-level data on agricultural practices and productivity to develop a spatially explicit life-cycle-emissions inventory for maize. From this inventory, we estimate health damages, accounting for atmospheric pollution transport and chemistry, and human exposure to pollution at high spatial resolution. We show that reduced air quality resulting from maize production is associated with 4,300 premature deaths annually in the United States, with estimated damages in monetary terms of US$39 billion (range: US$14–64 billion). Increased concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) are driven by emissions of ammonia—a PM 2.5 precursor—that result from nitrogen fertilizer use. Average health damages from reduced air quality are equivalent to US$121 t −1 of harvested maize grain, which is 62% of the US$195 t −1 decadal average maize grain market price. We also estimate life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of maize production, finding total climate change damages of US$4.9 billion (range: US$1.5–7.5 billion), or US$15 t −1 of maize. Our results suggest potential benefits from strategic interventions in maize production, including changing the fertilizer type and application method, improving nitrogen use efficiency, switching to crops requiring less fertilizer, and geographically recating production.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)397-403
Number of pages7
JournalNature Sustainability
Volume2
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2019

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air quality
Air quality
Zea mays
damages
maize
Air
air
Health
damage
corn
health
Pollution
Fertilizers
life cycle
Crops
agricultural product
Life cycle
pollution
fertilizer
Life Cycle Stages

Cite this

Air-quality-related health damages of maize. / Hill, Jason D; Goodkind, Andrew; Tessum, Christopher M; Thakrar, Sumil; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Smith, Tim; Hunt, Natalie D; Mullins, Kimberley; Clark, Michael; Marshall, Julian.

In: Nature Sustainability, Vol. 2, No. 5, 01.05.2019, p. 397-403.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hill, JD, Goodkind, A, Tessum, CM, Thakrar, S, Tilman, D, Polasky, S, Smith, T, Hunt, ND, Mullins, K, Clark, M & Marshall, J 2019, 'Air-quality-related health damages of maize', Nature Sustainability, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 397-403. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-019-0261-y
Hill, Jason D ; Goodkind, Andrew ; Tessum, Christopher M ; Thakrar, Sumil ; Tilman, David ; Polasky, Stephen ; Smith, Tim ; Hunt, Natalie D ; Mullins, Kimberley ; Clark, Michael ; Marshall, Julian. / Air-quality-related health damages of maize. In: Nature Sustainability. 2019 ; Vol. 2, No. 5. pp. 397-403.
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