Air pollution trends over Indian megacities and their local-to-global implications

B. R. Gurjar, Khaiwal Ravindra, Ajay S Nagpure

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

70 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

More than half of the world's population lives in urban areas. It is estimated that by 2030 there will be 41 megacities and most of them will be located in developing countries. The megacities in India (Delhi, Mumbai, and Kolkata) collectively have >46 million inhabitants. Increasing population and prosperity results in rapid growth of the already large consumption of energy and other resources, which contributes to air pollution, among other problems. Megacity pollution outflow plumes contain high levels of criteria pollutants (e.g. Particulate matter, SO2, NOx), greenhouse gases, ozone precursors and aerosols; which can affect the atmosphere not only on a local scale but also on regional and global scales. In the current study, emissions and concentration trends of criteria and other air pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and greenhouse gases) were examined in the three Indian megacities. Further, various policies and control strategies adopted by Indian Government are also discussed to improve air quality. Decreasing trends of SO2 was observed in all three megacities due to decrease in the sulfur content in coal and diesel. However, increasing trend for NOx was found in these megacities due to increase in number of vehicles registered and high flash point of CNG engines, which leads to higher NOx emission. In terms of SPM and PM10, highest emissions have been found at Kolkata, whereas highest ambient concentrations were recorded in Delhi. For Mumbai and Kolkata fluctuating trends of SPM concentrations were observed between 1991 and 1998 and stable afterwards till 2005; whereas for Delhi, fluctuating trend was observed for the entire study period. However, several steps have been taken to control air pollution in India but there is a need to focus on control of non-exhaust emissions including municipal solid waste and biomass burning in the megacities and surrounding areas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)475-495
Number of pages21
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Volume142
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016

Fingerprint

megacity
atmospheric pollution
greenhouse gas
biomass burning
trend
carbon monoxide
municipal solid waste
diesel
particulate matter
engine
PAH
air quality
outflow
plume
urban area
developing world
ozone
sulfur
coal
aerosol

Keywords

  • Air quality management
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Methane
  • Odd-even scheme
  • PAHs

Cite this

Air pollution trends over Indian megacities and their local-to-global implications. / Gurjar, B. R.; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Nagpure, Ajay S.

In: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 142, 01.10.2016, p. 475-495.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Gurjar, B. R. ; Ravindra, Khaiwal ; Nagpure, Ajay S. / Air pollution trends over Indian megacities and their local-to-global implications. In: Atmospheric Environment. 2016 ; Vol. 142. pp. 475-495.
@article{43e10a4fe6144054b35aa8253729114d,
title = "Air pollution trends over Indian megacities and their local-to-global implications",
abstract = "More than half of the world's population lives in urban areas. It is estimated that by 2030 there will be 41 megacities and most of them will be located in developing countries. The megacities in India (Delhi, Mumbai, and Kolkata) collectively have >46 million inhabitants. Increasing population and prosperity results in rapid growth of the already large consumption of energy and other resources, which contributes to air pollution, among other problems. Megacity pollution outflow plumes contain high levels of criteria pollutants (e.g. Particulate matter, SO2, NOx), greenhouse gases, ozone precursors and aerosols; which can affect the atmosphere not only on a local scale but also on regional and global scales. In the current study, emissions and concentration trends of criteria and other air pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and greenhouse gases) were examined in the three Indian megacities. Further, various policies and control strategies adopted by Indian Government are also discussed to improve air quality. Decreasing trends of SO2 was observed in all three megacities due to decrease in the sulfur content in coal and diesel. However, increasing trend for NOx was found in these megacities due to increase in number of vehicles registered and high flash point of CNG engines, which leads to higher NOx emission. In terms of SPM and PM10, highest emissions have been found at Kolkata, whereas highest ambient concentrations were recorded in Delhi. For Mumbai and Kolkata fluctuating trends of SPM concentrations were observed between 1991 and 1998 and stable afterwards till 2005; whereas for Delhi, fluctuating trend was observed for the entire study period. However, several steps have been taken to control air pollution in India but there is a need to focus on control of non-exhaust emissions including municipal solid waste and biomass burning in the megacities and surrounding areas.",
keywords = "Air quality management, Carbon dioxide, Methane, Odd-even scheme, PAHs",
author = "Gurjar, {B. R.} and Khaiwal Ravindra and Nagpure, {Ajay S}",
year = "2016",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.06.030",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "142",
pages = "475--495",
journal = "Atmospheric Environment",
issn = "1352-2310",
publisher = "Pergamon Press Ltd.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Air pollution trends over Indian megacities and their local-to-global implications

AU - Gurjar, B. R.

AU - Ravindra, Khaiwal

AU - Nagpure, Ajay S

PY - 2016/10/1

Y1 - 2016/10/1

N2 - More than half of the world's population lives in urban areas. It is estimated that by 2030 there will be 41 megacities and most of them will be located in developing countries. The megacities in India (Delhi, Mumbai, and Kolkata) collectively have >46 million inhabitants. Increasing population and prosperity results in rapid growth of the already large consumption of energy and other resources, which contributes to air pollution, among other problems. Megacity pollution outflow plumes contain high levels of criteria pollutants (e.g. Particulate matter, SO2, NOx), greenhouse gases, ozone precursors and aerosols; which can affect the atmosphere not only on a local scale but also on regional and global scales. In the current study, emissions and concentration trends of criteria and other air pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and greenhouse gases) were examined in the three Indian megacities. Further, various policies and control strategies adopted by Indian Government are also discussed to improve air quality. Decreasing trends of SO2 was observed in all three megacities due to decrease in the sulfur content in coal and diesel. However, increasing trend for NOx was found in these megacities due to increase in number of vehicles registered and high flash point of CNG engines, which leads to higher NOx emission. In terms of SPM and PM10, highest emissions have been found at Kolkata, whereas highest ambient concentrations were recorded in Delhi. For Mumbai and Kolkata fluctuating trends of SPM concentrations were observed between 1991 and 1998 and stable afterwards till 2005; whereas for Delhi, fluctuating trend was observed for the entire study period. However, several steps have been taken to control air pollution in India but there is a need to focus on control of non-exhaust emissions including municipal solid waste and biomass burning in the megacities and surrounding areas.

AB - More than half of the world's population lives in urban areas. It is estimated that by 2030 there will be 41 megacities and most of them will be located in developing countries. The megacities in India (Delhi, Mumbai, and Kolkata) collectively have >46 million inhabitants. Increasing population and prosperity results in rapid growth of the already large consumption of energy and other resources, which contributes to air pollution, among other problems. Megacity pollution outflow plumes contain high levels of criteria pollutants (e.g. Particulate matter, SO2, NOx), greenhouse gases, ozone precursors and aerosols; which can affect the atmosphere not only on a local scale but also on regional and global scales. In the current study, emissions and concentration trends of criteria and other air pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and greenhouse gases) were examined in the three Indian megacities. Further, various policies and control strategies adopted by Indian Government are also discussed to improve air quality. Decreasing trends of SO2 was observed in all three megacities due to decrease in the sulfur content in coal and diesel. However, increasing trend for NOx was found in these megacities due to increase in number of vehicles registered and high flash point of CNG engines, which leads to higher NOx emission. In terms of SPM and PM10, highest emissions have been found at Kolkata, whereas highest ambient concentrations were recorded in Delhi. For Mumbai and Kolkata fluctuating trends of SPM concentrations were observed between 1991 and 1998 and stable afterwards till 2005; whereas for Delhi, fluctuating trend was observed for the entire study period. However, several steps have been taken to control air pollution in India but there is a need to focus on control of non-exhaust emissions including municipal solid waste and biomass burning in the megacities and surrounding areas.

KW - Air quality management

KW - Carbon dioxide

KW - Methane

KW - Odd-even scheme

KW - PAHs

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84982131762&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84982131762&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.06.030

DO - 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.06.030

M3 - Review article

AN - SCOPUS:84982131762

VL - 142

SP - 475

EP - 495

JO - Atmospheric Environment

JF - Atmospheric Environment

SN - 1352-2310

ER -