Age-related immunosenescence, defined as an in¬crease in inflammaging and the decline of the immune system, leads to tissue dysfunction and increased risk for metabolic disease. The elderly population is expand¬ing, leading to a heightened need for therapeutics to improve health span. With age, many alterations of the immune system are observed, including shifts in the tis¬sue-resident immune cells, increased expression of inflammatory factors, and the accumulation of senes¬cent cells, all of which are responsible for a chronic inflammatory loop. Adipose tissue and the immune cell activation within are of particular interest for their well- known roles in metabolic disease. Recent literature reveals that adipose tissue is an organ in which signs of initial aging occur, including immune cell activation. Aged adipose tissue reveals changes in many innate and adaptive immune cell subsets, revealing a complex interaction that contributes to inflammation, increased senescence, impaired catecholamine-induced lipolysis, and impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we will describe current knowledge surrounding age-related changes in immune cells while relating those findings to recent discoveries regarding immune cells in aged adipose tissue.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments. We thank Stephanie Cholensky (University of Minnesota) for comments and edits on the final draft. Funding. This work was supported by National Institute on Aging grant R00 AG058800 (C.D.C.) and the Medical Discovery Team on the Biology of Aging (C.D.C.). C.D.C. also is supported by the Fesler-Lampert Chair in Aging Studies and the Glenn Foundation for Medical Research/AFAR Grants for Junior Faculty. Duality of Interest. No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.
© 2021 by the American Diabetes Association.
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't