Transgenic FVB/N mice overexpressing human (Hu) or mouse (Mo) Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein (APP695) die early and develop a CNS disorder that includes neophobia and impaired spatial alternation, with diminished glucose utilization and astrogliosis mainly in the cerebrum. Age at onset of neophobia and age at death decrease with increasing levels of brain APP. HuAPP transgenes induce death much earlier than MoAPP transgenes expressed at similar levels. No extracellular amyloid was detected, indicating that some deleterious processes related to APP overexpression are dissociated from formation of amyloid. A similar clinical syndrome occurs spontaneously in ∼20% of nontransgenic mice when they reach mid-to late-adult life, suggesting that APP overexpression may accelerate a naturally occuring age-related CNS disorder in FVB/N mice.