Age-related changes and longitudinal stability of individual differences in ABCD Neurocognition measures

Andrey P. Anokhin, Monica Luciana, Marie Banich, Deanna Barch, James M. Bjork, Marybel R. Gonzalez, Raul Gonzalez, Frank Haist, Joanna Jacobus, Krista Lisdahl, Erin McGlade, Bruce McCandliss, Bonnie Nagel, Sara Jo Nixon, Susan Tapert, James T. Kennedy, Wesley Thompson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Temporal stability of individual differences is an important prerequisite for accurate tracking of prospective relationships between neurocognition and real-world behavioral outcomes such as substance abuse and psychopathology. Here we report age-related changes and longitudinal test-retest stability (TRS) for the Neurocognition battery of the Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, which included the NIH Toolbox (TB) Cognitive Domain and additional memory and visuospatial processing tests administered at baseline (ages 9–11) and two-year follow-up. As expected, performance improved significantly with age, but the effect size varied broadly, with Pattern Comparison and the Crystallized Cognition Composite showing the largest age-related gain (Cohen's d:.99 and.97, respectively). TRS ranged from fair (Flanker test: r = 0.44) to excellent (Crystallized Cognition Composite: r = 0.82). A comparison of longitudinal changes and cross-sectional age-related differences within baseline and follow-up assessments suggested that, for some measures, longitudinal changes may be confounded by practice effects and differences in task stimuli or procedure between baseline and follow-up. In conclusion, a subset of measures showed good stability of individual differences despite significant age-related changes, warranting their use as prospective predictors. However, caution is needed in the interpretation of observed longitudinal changes as indicators of neurocognitive development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101078
JournalDevelopmental Cognitive Neuroscience
StatePublished - Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Research reported in this publication was supported by the grant U01 DA041120-06 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the grant R01HD083614 from Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) of the National Institutes of Health . The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. The authors acknowledge organizational and technical support by the ABCD staff. The authors also acknowledge the generous giving of time by the study participants and their families.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022


  • Development
  • Longitudinal
  • Neurocognition
  • Test-retest reliability
  • Brain
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Cognition
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Adolescent
  • Individuality
  • Child
  • Longitudinal Studies

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural


Dive into the research topics of 'Age-related changes and longitudinal stability of individual differences in ABCD Neurocognition measures'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this