Against free energy, for direct perception

Thomas A. Stoffregen, Robert Heath

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We question the free energy principle (FEP) as it is used in contemporary physics. If the FEP is incorrect in physics, then it cannot ground the authors' arguments. We also question the assumption that perception requires inference. We argue that perception (including perception of social affordances) can be direct, in which case inference is not required.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere212
JournalBehavioral and Brain Sciences
StatePublished - Sep 29 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Thomas A. Stoffregen was supported by NSF-1901423, CHS: Medium: Prediction, Early Detection, and Mitigation of Virtual Reality Simulator Sickness.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Cambridge University Press.


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