African American parents' racial and emotion socialization profiles and young adults' emotional adaptation

Angel S. Dunbar, Nicole B. Perry, Alyson M. Cavanaugh, Esther M. Leerkes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations

Abstract

The current study aimed to identify parents' profiles of racial and emotion socialization practices, to determine if these profiles vary as a function of family income and young adult child gender, and to examine their links with young adults' emotional adaptation. Participants included 192 African American young adults (70% women) who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.44 years). Four maternal profiles emerged: cultural-supportive (high cultural socialization and supportive responses to children's negative emotions), moderate bias preparation (moderate preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses to negative emotions), high bias preparation (high preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses), and low engaged (low across racial and socialization constructs). Three paternal profiles emerged: multifaceted (moderate across racial and emotion socialization constructs), high bias preparation, and low engaged. Men were more likely to have mothers in the high bias preparation and to have fathers in the multifaceted or high bias preparation profiles. Individuals with higher income were more likely to have mothers in the cultural-supportive profile and to have fathers in the multifaceted profile. Young adults whose mothers fit the cultural-supportive profile or the moderate bias preparation profile had lower levels of depressive symptoms than young adults whose mothers fit the high bias preparation profile.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)409-419
Number of pages11
JournalCultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology
Volume21
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015

Keywords

  • African american
  • Anger
  • Depression
  • Emotion socialization
  • Racial socialization

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