The insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family of proteins are part of a complex network that regulates cell proliferation and survival. While this system is undoubtedly important in prenatal development and postnatal cell growth, members of this family have been implicated in several different cancer types. Increased circulating insulin and IGF ligands have been linked to increased risk of cancer incidence. This observation has led to targeting the IGF system as a therapeutic strategy in a number of cancers. This chapter aims to describe the well-characterized biology of the IGF1R system, outline the rationale for targeting this system in cancer, summarize the clinical data as it stands, and discuss where we can go from here.