Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) encompasses a pathophysiological spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, all of which have significant morbidity and mortality. ACS was once considered an acute condition; however, new treatment strategies and improvements in biomarker assays have led to ACS being an acute and chronic disease. Cardiac troponin is the preferred biomarker for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, and there is considerable interest and efforts toward development and implementation of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays worldwide. Analytical and clinical performance characteristics of hs-cTn assays as well as testing limitations are important for laboratorians and clinicians to understand in order to utilize testing appropriately. Furthermore, expanding the clinical utility of hs-cTn into other cohorts such as asymptomatic community dwelling populations, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease populations supports novel opportunities for improved short- and long-term prognosis.