Advanced laboratory techniques for sample processing and immunolabeling using microwave radiation

Adam M. Ferris, Richard T. Giberson, Mark A. Sanders, Jonathan R. Day

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


A better understanding of improved microwave technology has increased the benefits and versatility of the technique as it applies to all aspects of immunohistochemistry. The role of continuous magnetron power output (wattage) combined with precise control of sample heating demonstrated their significance to complex labeling protocols. Here, we present results for microwave-assisted formaldehyde fixation and its effect on GFP expression in transfected HeLa cells. Rat brain sections and cultured hippocampal cells were labeled with 11 different primary antibodies using a unified microwave protocol. Microwave-assisted immunohistochemistry made it possible to sequentially label tissues and cells with several primary antibodies in a very short period of time with excellent labeling characteristics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)157-164
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Neuroscience Methods
Issue number2
StatePublished - Sep 15 2009

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We would like to thank Bioscience Research Agents (Millipore) for providing the antibody reagents used in this study. Supported by NIH NS 44062 and NSF 0447192 to JRD and the CSU Chico Research Foundation.


  • Antibodies
  • Cell culture
  • Double labeling
  • Formaldehyde fixation
  • GFP expression
  • HeLa cells
  • Hippocampus
  • Immunohistochemistry


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