Advanced in vivo heteronuclear MRS approaches for studying brain bioenergetics driven by mitochondria

Xiao Hong Zhu, Fei Du, Nanyin Zhang, Yi Zhang, Hao Lei, Xiaoliang Zhang, Hongyan Qiao, Kamil Ugurbil, Wei Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


The greatest merit of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methodology used in biomedical research is its ability for noninvasively measuring a variety of metabolites inside a living organ. It, therefore, provides an invaluable tool for determining metabolites, chemical reaction rates and bioenergetics, as well as their dynamic changes in the human and animal. The capability of in vivo MRS is further enhanced at higher magnetic fields because of significant gain in detection sensitivity and improvement in the spectral resolution. Recent progress of in vivo MRS technology has further demonstrated its great potential in many biomedical research areas, particularly in brain research. Here, we provide a review of new developments for in vivo heteronuclear <sup>31</sup>P and <sup>17</sup>O MRS approaches and their applications in determining the cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and ATP inside the mitochondria, in both animal and human brains.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)317-357
Number of pages41
JournalMethods in Molecular Biology
StatePublished - 2009


  • Brain
  • Brain function
  • Brain metabolism
  • Cerebral bioenergetics
  • In vivo <sup>17</sup>O MRS
  • In vivo <sup>31</sup>P MRS
  • In vivo heteronuclear MRS
  • Magnetic field
  • MRI


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